Vertical Movement in Toplines, Underlines, Croups and Tails

    Before we leave the topline, I would like to quote a passage from an excellent article on Doberman movement, “Doberman on the Move” by Robert Vandiver. After reading Bob’s explanation as to why a dog’s topline should remain level and firm, I think everyone will understand why a dog that moves with the least amount of wasted motion is so highly prized.

    “A Doberman that bounces over the withers has a serious handicap. Let’s try to quantify the effects of a bouncing front due to a combination of structural deviations. If a male Doberman has a stride of 28 inches at the trot (2263 steps per mile), and the withers move up and down ½ inch with each step, then the dog’s front will expend the energy equivalent of lifting it 94 feet while traveling that mile. Since the dog’s front is about 60% of the dog’s total weight, then the dog would have expended 60% of the energy to raise his entire body the 94 feet. In other words, after trotting for a mile, the dog will have also expended the energy equivalent to climbing a 6 story building (60% of the 94 feet). The extra work expended in an hour of trotting (typically at 5 miles per hour) would be the equivalent of climbing 30 stories. After a day’s work, this dog will be far more exhausted than one that moves without bounce over the withers.” Read the article in its entirety at:

    The underline on a dog is as important as the topline when it comes to function. The underline is just that—the bottom line of the body of the dog, starting behind the elbows at the bottom of the chest and going back until it disappears behind the back leg. The underline follows the path taken by the bottom of the chest (sternum or brisket) on to the underline of the abdomen. This area, referred to as the tuck up (or cut up) is the shape that is produced by the underline of the abdomen as it sweeps up to the region of the hind quarters. It can be exaggerated in some breeds, such as the Whippet (see Figure 1), and is further exaggerated when they have the correct, deep chest. It can be moderate to barely noticeable in other breeds. The sighthounds, such as the coursing Greyhound and the fleet-footed Whippet must necessarily have more tuck up in order to bend and flex with the double suspension gallop, vital to a fast moving dog. Whereas many of the trailing breeds more often have a near horizontal line of the abdomen with little tuck up. (See Figure 2) No matter the breed, a loose, paunchy abdomen is incorrect in any breed and an excessive tuck up can often be seen in a dog that would be consistent with weediness in a breed that should have some substance.

    The tail of the dog can act to maintain balance by helping to shift the center of gravity as the dog moves. The tail can also be an indicator of temperament and one way the dog uses body language to communicate with other dogs as well as other species—such as humans. Having said that, in discussions with a friend involved with a breed not known for a warm and fuzzy, sweet demeanor, she said she’s known many a dog that while wagging his tail in supposed merriment, would reach over and bite you! So one should be aware that a wagging tail does not always mean the dog is amenable to your approach.

    I have often heard that the swimming breeds use their tail in a manner similar to a rudder, but I have a hard time believing that simply because most dogs when swimming depend upon the front legs to do more to propel them through the water than the back legs. It was once thought that dogs would swim in a trotting motion, but more recent video analysis have revealed that they actually run underwater (gallop instead of trot). In this research, it was determined that they do use their front paws for ‘power strokes’ just as do competitive human swimmers. As the breeder of a herding breed with a docked or bob tail, I know they do quite well traversing through water whether it be a pond or a pool—even lacking a tail. My dogs all love to swim and do so with great enthusiasm, gleefully jumping into the pond or pool again and again and none of them have a tail. Just about any breed with the exception of those with very round chests and shorter muzzles can swim, but caution must be taken with these breeds as well as heavily coated breeds who could be weighed down by a water soaked coat causing difficulty and possible drowning.

    Tail set is a structural matter—and the tail can be set high, directly off of the spine, or in various degrees of being low set. (See Figures 5 though 7) Tail carriage, on the other hand, can be very much influenced by the metal attitude of the dog. A dog with a high tail set can certainly drop the tail instead of carrying it up or over the back as is usually expected with a high tail set. I have seen many dogs with a correctly placed low set tail that can carry the it much higher than one would think possible (the Cardigan Welsh Corgi immediately comes to mind) so I am always sure to physically check for the proper low tailset when I am doing a table exam in the ring.

    There are as many tail shapes and lengths and thicknesses as there are breeds. In your own breed, you should be able to understand why the tail is described as it is and what function it could serve through its physical characteristics and carriage.

    Please send comments, suggestions or to schedule a seminar to Stephanie Hedgepath at

    • Stephanie Hedgepath

      My involvement in purebred dogs began in 1969 with the purchase of my first show dog, a German Shepherd Dog whom I showed but never finished. I did work him in obedience, earning a CD, but retiring him from competition in Open when he was kicked in the leg by one of my horses and my vet told me not to jump him anymore. I worked with him in tracking and in man-work –when I was allowed to join up with a group of military trainers from Shaw Air Force Base. I’m still in touchwith one of them to this day. In the mid-seventies I began breeding and showing Pembroke Welsh Corgis under the Jimanie prefix and have finished, on average, a champion a year for the last 45+ years. Almost all were breeder/owner handled to their titles. In 2010, I formed a loose partnership with two long-time friends under the Trifecta prefixand I still breed and show my Pembroke Welsh Corgis. As just stated, I am a breeder/owner/handler and hope to continue to breed and show even after I have retired from judging. Over the years I have owned and shown dogs, mostly from the Herding and Sporting groups plus a few Toy breeds, though my first Grand Champion was a Tibetan Spaniel! I started out showing in the Working group with my German Shepherds and then with the Corgis, before the herdingbreeds were split off into their own group. I always lovedto hunt, so usually had a “bird dog” around and thus also showed Brittanys, Pointers, Golden Retrievers and even an Irish Setter over the years. I have made up champions from the Toy group and also,as noted before, onefrom Non-Sporting, a very special Tibetan Spaniel. I love all dogs, from the best of the purebreds to the mixed breeds that have wandered into my lifeand every single dog that has ever walked into my ring. It still thrills me to be allowed to pet dogs all day as a judge –I love every minute of it. I started my judging career in 1988 with AKC approval to judge German Shepherds and both Cardigan and Pembroke Welsh Corgis. I now judge the Herding, Sporting, Toy and Non-Sporting Groups. I have been fortunate enough to have judged dogs throughout the US and Canada and also in Jamaica, Finland, Norway, Sweden, New Zealand, Australia, China, the Philippines, Ireland, theUnited Kingdom and Mexico. In 2011, I was accorded the supreme honor of being asked to judge the Welsh Corgi League show in the UK and in previous years the Cardigan Welsh Corgi and Pembroke Welsh Corgi nationals in the US. Since then, I have also judged the Pembroke National in Canada. I have also had the high honor of having judged many National and Regional Specialties for breeds I did not breed, own or show from the four groups that I am approved to judge. When I judge, I am there for the dogsand for the individual breedsto try to help preserve them.I was trained and worked as a Respiratory Therapist and became the head of that department in a new county hospital in 1971.This precipitateda move frommy birthplace ofCharleston, SC (from which I thought I would never leave!) to the greater Columbia, SC area, where I currently reside. I now make my living as an artist, mostly through the design and publication of counted cross stitch designs and needlepoint, but also through paintings, sculpture and jewelry design. In the past several years I have begun authoring and producing DVDs on the canine, mostly dealing with structure and movement. I live on 11 acres in the country and love to work in the flower garden, leaving the veggie garden to my husband. I love all typesof craft work and one of my great joys is sharing my love of art with my oldest grandchild, Kaitlyn, who is an accomplished artist in her own right. Last, but certainly not least, I have been married to Jim Hedgepath since 1972 and am the mother of two and the grandmother of four.

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